Such persons are of great interest to researchers, who feel that a study of their physiologies could provide a deeper understanding of the virus and disease.
An HIV vaccine is a vaccine that would be given to a person who does not have HIV, in order to confer protection against subsequent exposures to HIV, thus reducing the likelihood that the person would become infected by HIV. Various HIV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials almost since the discovery of HIV.
With unprecedented speed, antiretrovirals became available that target different steps in the HIV replication cycle, which are now effectively used in combination therapy.
Combination antiretroviral therapy also reduces the likelihood of onward HIV transmission, and HIV treatment is a crucial component of HIV prevention, in combination with public health approaches, in particular the promotion of regular HIV testing and safe practices.
A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain (7.4 years) and blood (5.2 years) tissue due to HIV-1 infection with the help of a biomarker of aging, which is known as epigenetic clock.
A long-term nonprogressor is a person who is infected with HIV, but whose body, for whatever reason, naturally controls the virus so that the infection does not progress to the AIDS stage.Despite enormous international collaborative efforts and detailed research into neutralizing antibodies and HIV specific cellular immunity, effective immunotherapy or an efficacious vaccine are not yet available.Major aspects of HIV infection are still not well understood, and much remains to be done to ensure affected people and communities benefit from the knowledge that has accumulated and that drives clinical and public health innovation.9, 35 In active infection, HIV pro virus is active and HIV virus particles are actively replicated; and the infected cells continuously release viral progeny; while in latent infection, HIV pro virus is transcriptionally silenced and no viral progeny is produced.Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining better sequences of regimens to manage drug resistance.HIV-specific immunity does affect viral load and slows down disease progression, but eventually fails in almost all patients.Better understanding the pathogenesis of HIV in the host and the dissemination of HIV in the population are both essential to effective control of the epidemic.Research on pathogenesis and public health address two sides of the same coin and underpin the effective control of HIV-associated disease and the spread of HIV in the population.As an innovative collaboration and cross-fertilization between Frontiers in Immunology and Frontiers in Public Health, the HIV and AIDS specialty section aims to bring together studies on pathogenesis and on public health aspects."Pre-exposure prophylaxis" refers to the practice of taking some drugs before being exposed to HIV infection, and having a decreased chance of contracting HIV as a result of taking that drug.Post-exposure prophylaxis refers to taking some drugs quickly after being exposed to HIV, while the virus is in a person's body but before the virus has established itself.