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The group-administered multiple-choice format is what people often have in mind when the term is used.
There is much to be learned from the experience in other educational settings about the uses, misuses, and unintended consequences of testing (e.g., Haertel, 1989; Gifford, 1993; National Research Council, 1982a; U. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, 1992; Shepard, 1991).
And there is much to remember about the developmental status of young children, including the nascent state of their attention and self-regulation abilities, that makes as- sessment even more challenging than in other populations.
When test or assessment information is used for placement, school readiness, or other high-stakes decisions, it behooves educators to pay attention to the consequences and to make sure that they are educationally beneficial.
become particularly salient in the assessment of young children.
Given their prevalence in the education system as a whole, it is not entirely surprising that the use of tests Although the terms are not mutually exclusive, the word “test” tends to be used to refer to standardized instruments, formally administered, and designed to minimize all differences in the conditions of testing presented to test takers.
There are both individually administered and group-administered standardized tests.
The second reason for assessing young children is to diagnose suspected mental, physical, or emotional difficulties that may require special services.
The final two purposes can be combined under the rubric of assessment to make policy decisions.
A corollary of this statement is that no test score should be looked on as infallible or immutable.
A second point of consensus is the requirement of measurement validity.