Cognitive Processes Essays

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Key words: Argumentative essay, pre-service teachers, think-aloud protocol, writing strategies.

Este artículo informa sobre un estudio relacionado con la identificación de estrategias retóricas, metacognitivas y cognitivas utilizadas por profesores en formación antes y después de una intervención centrada en la escritura en proceso de realizar un ensayo argumentativo.

A strategy is any tool, specific action, or behavior someone uses to solve a problem (Coffin et al., 2003; Shapira & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 2005); in other words, when writers write we assume they use strategies to accomplish their task. This is a qualitative and descriptive research study that focuses on eliciting participants’ writing strategies at two specific moments: before and after a process-based writing intervention.

For Mu (2005) effective writers use rhetorical, metacognitive, cognitive, communicative, and social-affective strategies when they write: (a) Rhetorical strategies deal with types of texts and their structures; (b) metacognitive strategies are related to writers’ self-regulation concerning cognitive procedures when producing a text; (c) cognitive strategies allow users to process, store, and transform different types of knowledge; (d) communicative strategies focus on conveying a message effectively; and (e) social/affective strategies are those which writers employ when interacting with other people. The focus of this study relies on identifying what strategies teacher candidates use when they are actually writing the essay through the think-aloud protocol.

These two types of knowledge are transferred into the use of different writing strategies. According to Díaz Rodríguez (2014), “cognitive and metacognitive strategies work together” (p. The difference between both strategies is that the former is used to support development in learning and the latter to monitor and control learning.

Cognitive Processes Essays

Another important aspect analyzed in this study is the use of writing strategies employed by students. In fact, cognitive and metacognitive strategies are not independent from one another; they work together while the subject is performing a task (Cook, 2008; Cook & Singleton, 2014). Retrieved from

En suma, una intervención de escritura en proceso no solo influye en la cantidad de estrategias empleadas, sino también en el número de estudiantes que las usan cuando escriben un ensayo argumentativo; dos consideraciones clave para la creación de cualquier programa de escritura.

Palabras clave: ensayo argumentativo, estrategias de escritura, estudiantes de un programa de formación de profesores de inglés, protocolo de pensamiento en voz alta.

This process is recursive, which means there is always a shift back for revision and editing. Authors like Parodi (2003), for example, declare that “metacognitive ability is seen as an essential component in a good writer” (p. This implies that the writer should be aware of his/her learning process in order to be an effective writer. Maybe only when s/he realizes that the student(s) has(have) stopped speaking out loud can the researcher prompt the subject by telling him/her: “Go on”, “Keep on talking”.

According to Mu (2005), in order to write successfully, learners articulate their prior knowledge concerning linguistic contents (conceptual knowledge) and the application of specific actions to solve writing problems (procedural knowledge). Cognitive Strategies Cognitive strategies, on the other hand, enable students to process, transform, and create information in order to assist them in performing complex tasks, using the language effectively and engaging actively “in the knowledge acquisition process” (Mc Crindle & Christensen, 1995, p. According to Oxford (2011), cognitive strategies refer to organizing information, reading out loud, analyzing, and summarizing, and can also include the use of a dictionary (which can also appear as a social strategy). Writing English as a second or foreign language: A report from Ukraine.


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