Computers In Manufacturing Essay

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The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism.

Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.

And most of those options don't involve technology.

You can accept the risk as a cost of doing business.

But if the customer doesn't, they'll take the order anyway. You can mitigate the risk technologically--with firewalls, virtual private networks, encryption, and all sorts of other security technologies. Of course, a smart company is going to do some of each.

Keeping the customer buying is worth the risk of eavesdropping. You can mitigate the risk procedurally, using acceptable-use policies and network monitoring services. The company will accept some amount of risk, mitigate some more risk with various technologies and procedures, and insure the rest of it. Sooner or later, the insurance industry will sell everyone anti-hacking policies. And then we'll start seeing good security rewarded in the marketplace.Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer.Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task.Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine.This is sometimes difficult for computer science professionals to understand because they are so used to technologies solving their problems.In the real world, businesses get security through insurance.Engineers and scientists have built more and better products, and the guiding paradigm has been "avoid the threat." The insurance industry knows the real trick is to manage the risk. When you think "threat avoidance," you can either succeed or fail.When you think "risk management," you have many more options.The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts.By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.


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