Militant groups such as the White Leagues and the Ku Klux Klan organized to oppose the new challenge to white supremacy.
Outbursts of violence were commonplace throughout the South during this period: According to General Philip Sheridan, commander of troops in Louisiana and Texas during Reconstruction, 3,500 civil rights advocates were slain in Louisiana alone in the decade following the Civil War, 1,884 of them in 1868 alone.
Page 265 In the Mississippi election campaign of 1874, several Black leaders in Vicksburg were attacked and murdered by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
During the Louisiana election campaign of 1878, Klan gunmen fired on Blacks in Caddo Parish, killing 40 by one account, as many as 75 by another.
After the American Revolution, with the invention of the cotton gin, slavery in the South intensified.
Black Americans provided most of the labor to support the economy of that region.The arsenal was recaptured 2 days after Brown's raid, and Brown was hanged following his trial and conviction of treason, conspiracy, and murder. Blacks served a limited role in the Union Army; over 200,000 of them were inducted.Sectional differences led to the Civil War that fractured the Union in 1861; it lasted 4 years and became one of the bloodiest military conflicts in U. Their presence in battle infuriated Confederate military leaders, some of whom approved a no-prisoner policy for Blacks.Civil rights violence dates back at least to the mid-18th century, with the slave revolts of that period and their brutal suppression by whites.Roaming bands of runaway slaves in the South attacked plantations, and, in 1775, fears of a general slave uprising led to the annihilation of at least one group of Blacks by white soldiers in Georgia. His death signaled the seeming end of a period of civil rights progress that he had led and for which his life had become a symbol. King's legacy is one of profound change in the social fabric, not only for Black Americans, but for all citizens. Martin Luther King, Jr., an eloquent Baptist minister from Atlanta, Ga., was one of the most prominent figures in the civil rights movement in America during its period of most visible achievement, 1955 to 1968. King became the victim of savage violence, killed by a sniper's bullet as he stood on the balcony of a Memphis, Tenn, motel on April 4, 1968.In 1859, Brown seized the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, W.Va., in the hope of arming a Black force that would free slaves in the South.The pillaging and burning of Lawrence, Kans., by a proslavery mob on May 21, 1856, led abolitionist John Brown to launch a bloody retaliatory raid on Potawatamie, Kans., 3 days later.The massacre touched off a guerrilla war that lasted until Kansas was granted statehood in 1861.