Essays Biochemistry Volume 42

Essays Biochemistry Volume 42-66
This penetrating case study of institution building and entrepreneurship in science shows how a minor medical speciality evolved into a large and powerful academic discipline.

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Thus the objective of the present study was to investigate whether ODC activity and polyamine concentrations are biochemical markers of malignancy, which might be used for individual tumour characterisation in addition to conventional neuropathology.

In this series, ODC activity and polyamine concentrations were measured for the first time in parallel in a large number of human brain tumours.

Essay Review: Hustlers and Patrons of Science, Millikan's School: A History of the California Institute of Technology, Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists 1900–1945.

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Correlation of regional biochemical and histomorphological data in rapidly growing neoplasms showed high enzyme activity in solid tumour parts and low activity in necrotic areas.

CONCLUSIONS Novel data relating ODC activation and polyamine concentrations to neuropathology is presented indicating that high ODC activity represents a biochemical marker of malignancy in brain tumours. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Note you can select to send to either the @free.or @variations. To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure [email protected] added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. The book shows how biochemistry was defined as a distinct discipline by the programmatic vision of individual biochemists and of patrons and competitors in related disciplines. Drawing extensively on little-used archival sources, the author analyses in detail how biomedical science became a central part of medical training and practice.Pathways of polyamine metabolism and interconversion. ODC=Ornithine decarboxylase; SAMDC=S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; dec S-adenosylmethionine=decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine; SAT=spermidine/spermine NIn recent studies of experimental gliomas, we showed that ODC activity represents a reliable biochemical marker of neoplastic growth in the brain.20 21 These data were obtained from highly malignant anaplastic gliomas.In human brain tumours, individual tumour behaviour does not always correspond to the histologically defined neuropathology.This information is important for clinical and therapeutic investigations.Biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine and their metabolic precursor putrescine is mainly regulated by changes in the activity of the first key enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine to the diamine putrescine (fig 1).1 2 Polyamines are present in all eukaryotic cells, including cells of the CNS.3-5 Their biosynthesis is closely associated with cellular growth processes, including physiological3 4 6 7 and neoplastic cell proliferation.8-11 It has been demonstrated that polyamines might be useful biochemical markers for diagnosis and follow up in patients with malignant neoplasms.9 10 12 In human brain tumours increases in ODC activity13-15 and putrescine concentrations14-18 have been found.The purpose was to investigate whether the content of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of the first metabolic key enzyme of polyamine metabolism, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), represent biochemical markers of malignancy in brain tumours.METHODS The concentration of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of ODC were biochemically quantified in tissue samples obtained during open microsurgery of 670 patients with brain tumours.

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