Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved.
Vazsonyi & Pickering (2003) studied 809 adolescents in American high schools, and found that, using the Normative Deviance Scale as a model for deviance, the correlation was Bempechat (2004) says that homework develops students' motivation and study skills.
The students slept an average of 6 hours 48 minutes, lower than the recommendations prescribed by various health agencies.
A study done at the University of Michigan in 2007 concluded that the amount of homework given is increasing.
Suzanne Capek Tingley started as a high school English/Spanish teacher, transitioned to middle school, and eventually became a principal, superintendent, and adjunct professor in education administration at the State University of New York.
She is the author of the funny, but practical book for teachers, How to Handle Difficult Parents (Prufrock Press).In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9 years, it was shown that students spend more than 2 hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in 1981.Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture.Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students.Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class.Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students, especially lower-achieving students.In the Met Life study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks.Kohn (2006) argued that homework can create family conflict and reduce students' quality of life.With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.