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There have been a few psychologists who have come up with names and theories for different parenting styles, but in general, psychologists have agreed on four basic styles of parenting, which are; authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent or permissive, and neglectful (Wentzel &Russell, 2003).Despite the discovery of these parenting styles the right parenting style is the one that uplifts high classroom performance of a child.The forth limitation would be the selection of the participants.
Chankhanga Community Day Secondary School in Kasungu District The best gift that parents can give their children is good education.
It is believed that education is the most reliable key to success.
Authoritarian parenting "This is a type of parenting where by parents are very strict and punitive. Authoritative parenting "This is a positive parenting style that encourages children to be independent but it still places limits and control over their actions (Santrock, 2009. Indulgent parenting "This is a parenting style where by parents are highly involved with their children but few limits and restrictions are placed on their behavior" (Clarke, 2003, p.320).
Neglectful parenting In this parenting style parents are not involved in either control or love; they are basically absent (Education-Portal, 2003-2012) The following section will present a literature review on the four type of parenting thus authoritarian, authoritative, neglectful, and indulgent parenting and how they are related to children’s classroom performance.
Zahari and others in their research describes that parenting style captures two important Elements of parenting; these are parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Ellis(2007) writes in her thesis that Baumrind is widely recognised as developing a classification for parenting styles.
Parental responsiveness is similar to parental warmth or supportiveness refers to the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self –regulation and self- assertion by being attuned, supportive to children’s special needs and demand. Ellis explains that in Baumrind’s 1962 typology, three different styles were identified: authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive.
This will help the parents to look after their children in a proper way and provide all the necessities that can help the learners to improve their classroom performance. Parents using authoritative style of parenting contribute positively to their children’s classroom performance. Children coming from peaceful homes achieve high grades than those coming from chaos homes.
This research shall be driven by the theory of Baumrind’s Typology of parenting style by Diana Baumrind who conducted extensive observations of parents interacting with their children in their homes and concluded four dimensional of parent-child interactions reflecting types of responsiveness and control predict reliably children’s social, emotional, and cognitive functioning (Wentzel and Russell, 2003).
Douglas in his thesis says that parent’s involvement with their children’s schooling has been shown to affect student’s academic achievement (Douglas 2011).
Different parenting styles have been studied by child psychologists for many years but really got attention in the 1970s and 80s.