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On contrary, readers are encouraged to take this only as a reminder and to consult a textbook for a more comprehensive coverage of the issues mentioned in this article., authors certainly need to make sure that readers are informed about the number and size of the studied groups.All estimates need to be presented with the appropriate summary measures, confidence intervals and P values (where applicable).For instance, when reporting the number of cigarettes smoked in some studied period, it is completely unnecessary and wrong to state that the number of cigarettes was: 10.21 ± 3.16.
For all tested differences and associations, the level of significance must be provided.
The following is the example for well written Results section of the Abstract: Results: There were 250 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 232 healthy controls.
For example, if authors wish to compare two areas under the curve (AUC) for two parameters, it needs to be checked if their confidence intervals overlap.
In case those two confidence intervals overlap, it may be concluded that there is no statistically significant difference in the AUC for those two parameters at the corresponding level of significance relative to the confidence interval.
section there are several key points to keep in mind, such as: are results presented with adequate precision and accurately; is descriptive analysis appropriate; is the measure of confidence provided for all estimates; if necessary and applicable, are correct statistical tests used for analysis; is P value provided for all tests, etc.
Especially important is not to make any conclusions on the causal relationship unless the study is an experiment or clinical trial.
The improper use of statistical methods is unethical because it leads to biased results and incorrect conclusions.
Moreover, this is a substantial waste of time and money.
Quite often, it is not clear from the text whether the assumptions for tests were met and have appropriate tests been used in the data analysis.
This part of the manuscript is crucial and needs to be written with great attention and care.