On the other hand, one can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; this information is said to be stored in long-term memory.
While short-term memory encodes information acoustically, long-term memory encodes it semantically: Baddeley (1966) discovered that, after 20 minutes, test subjects had the most difficulty recalling a collection of words that had similar meanings (e.g. Another part of long-term memory is episodic memory, "which attempts to capture information such as 'what', 'when' and 'where With episodic memory, individuals are able to recall specific events such as birthday parties and weddings.
Memory is not a perfect processor, and is affected by many factors.
The ways by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved can all be corrupted.
Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor.
Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor.
Conrad (1964) found that test subjects had more difficulty recalling collections of letters that were acoustically similar (e.g. Confusion with recalling acoustically similar letters rather than visually similar letters implies that the letters were encoded acoustically.
Conrad's (1964) study, however, deals with the encoding of written text; thus, while memory of written language may rely on acoustic components, generalisations to all forms of memory cannot be made.
The ability to look at an item and remember what it looked like with just a split second of observation, or memorization, is the example of sensory memory.
It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response.