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The Physical layer has been studied in terms of channel selection and estimation schemes, diversity schemes, propagation models, and cognitive radios.Whereas the MAC layer has been thoroughly researched for Multi-Channels, contention window size adjustment, hidden/exposed nodes, contention and scheduling based algorithms, and congestion control algorithms.
This paper also gives a layered view of the various underlying challenges in VANETs.
But the work has been limited to the Routing, Security, and Application Layers.
The aim of all is to improve the performance of the network and support scalability in VANETs; which is defined as the ability of the network to handle the addition of vehicles (nodes) without suffering noticeable degradation of performance or administrative overhead.
In this paper, we aim to highlight multilayer challenges concerning the performance of the VANETs, the already proposed solutions, and the possible future work.
The Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology is being used for the safety and non-safety applications in vehicular communication.
The allocated bandwidth of 75 MHz in 5.9 GHz spectrum band is being utilized for this purpose .
The Self Organized Time Division Multiple Access (STDMA) has been used to solve the scalability problem in VANETs and has shown promising results, in terms of scalability and reliability, compared with CSMA .
Popular research issue, analysis, and trends in VANETs are presented in .
Research in the past has focused on many areas from the Physical, MAC, Network, Application to the Security and Management Layers.
Each Layer has its own challenges that add up to the overall performance of the DSRC.