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This should be in addition to disaggregated indicators and targets in every other goal to ensure equitable progress across different social groups towards agreed development objectives. Income inequality and population health: Correlation and causality. Evidence from Italy and top industrialised countries. Kondo N, Sembajwe G, Kawachi I, van Dam RM, Subramanian SV, Yamagata Z. Further examination of the cross-country association between income inequality and population health. National infant mortality rates in relation to gross national product and distribution of income. Correlates of National HIV Seroprevalence: An Ecologic Analysis of 122 Developing Countries. Confronting AIDS: Evidence from the Developing World. Income inequality, trust and homicide in 33 countries. Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D. An inequality target could be based on Palma’s ratio of the income share of the top 10% of a population to the bottom 40%. The problems of relative deprivation: Why some societies do better than others. Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: meta-analysis of multilevel studies. Brussels and Washington, DC: European Commission and World Bank 1998.16. Income inequality, trust, and population health in 33 countries.
Stronger community life in more equal societies also means that people are more willing to act for the common good – they recycle more, spend more on foreign aid, score higher on the Global Peace Index . The Future of Global Poverty in a Multi-Speed World: Mimeo, 2013.33. Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.36.
Income differences can be reduced via redistribution through taxes and benefits, or by reducing differences in pre-tax incomes.
A potential target could be to halve national Palma ratios by 2030, compared to 2010, and dramatically reduce the global Palma ratio, which is currently 32.
Prioritising the need to tackle inequality in this way will ensure that economic and development strategies are truly inclusive and can drive human progress towards sustainability and wellbeing.
A core objective of the post-2015 development framework and the sustainable development goals should be to reduce inequality within countries. Insecurity, inequality, and obesity in affluent societies: Oxford University Press, 2012.13. All for all: Equality, corruption and social trust.
The frameworks should include a top-level goal to reduce inequalities, including income inequalities in particular. Has the relation between income inequality and life expectancy disappeared? Income inequality and health: what have we learned so far? Hales S, Howden-Chapman P, Salmond C, Woodward A, Mackenbach J. Inequality: an underacknowledged source of mental illness and distress. Pickett KE, Kelly S, Brunner E, Lobstein T, Wilkinson RG. An ecological study of obesity and income inequality. Drain PK, Smith JS, Hughes JP, Halperin DT, Holmes KK. The effects of societal variables on urban rates of HIV infection in developing countries: An exploratory analysis. There is a particularly large body of evidence linking greater inequality to worse population health; hundreds of studies show us that life expectancy is longer, and mortality lower, in more equal societies . A dark side of the American dream: correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. There is also substantial evidence linking greater equality to better social relationships within societies –levels of social cohesion, including trust and social capital, are higher in more equal countries . Social inequality goes hand in hand with social stratification.Social inequality is characterized by the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses within a group or society.Alliance for Sustainability and Prosperity (ASAP) Equality Trust The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone. Heterogeneous Tails, and the End of the ‘Inverted‐U’: It’s All About the Share of the Rich. In addition to its impact on health and social outcomes, greater equality is also linked to economic progress and stability. Poverty reduction, and hence development, is compromised by income inequality and, of course, consumerism is a major threat to sustainability. The price of inequality: How today’s divided society endangers our future: WW Norton & Company, 2012.35. Falling behind: how rising inequality harms the middle class. Dealing with tax havens and other methods used by rich individuals and large companies to avoid tax is crucial; the amount of money lost by developing countries to tax havens exceeds all international development aid. Poverty, income inequality, and violent crime: A meta-analysis of recent aggregate data studies. This not only increases global inequality but also means that a higher proportion of public expenditure has to be funded by tax payers in lower income groups. Income inequality and homicide rates in Canada and the United States.