The violence never reached the most common currently agreed threshold of a ‘war’ – over 1,000 deaths in a year.
Northern Ireland was created in 1920 under the Government of Ireland Act, due to Ulster unionist lobbying to be excluded from Home Rule for Ireland.
Northern Ireland comprised six north eastern counties of Ireland in the province of Ulster. w=640 640w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" data-recalc-dims="1" / Northern Ireland’s existence was confirmed under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, that ended the Irish War of Independence.
Unionists and the British government referred to the long running political violence as a law and order problem of ‘terrorism’.
The London government portrayed the role of state forces as being primarily of peace-keeping between the ‘two communities’.
Though not the principle focus of their campaign, republicans also killed significant numbers of Protestant civilians.
The IRA called a ceasefire in 1994, followed shortly afterwards by the loyalist groups, leading to multi-party talks about the future of Northern Ireland.
This name had the advantage that it did not attach blame to any of the participants and thus could be used neutrally.
Republicans, particularly supporters of the Provisional IRA referred to the conflict as ‘the war’, and portrayed it as a guerrilla war of national liberation.
This is a superb site which we will be using a lot throughout the course.
It contains copies of original documents relating to the course and also has chapters and articles on various aspects of the ‘troubles’ from different viewpoints.