The NBAC’s report, , came to various conclusions, including the following (emphasis added): “The Commission concludes that at this time it is morally unacceptable for anyone in the public or private sector, whether in a research or clinical setting, to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning.The Commission reached a consensus on this point because current scientific information indicates that this technique is not safe to use in humans at this point.The National Academies provided the initiative and financial sponsorship for this study.
The NBAC’s report, , came to various conclusions, including the following (emphasis added): “The Commission concludes that at this time it is morally unacceptable for anyone in the public or private sector, whether in a research or clinical setting, to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning.
Indeed, the Commission believes it would violate important ethical obligations were clinicians or researchers to attempt to create a child using these particular technologies, which are likely to involve unacceptable risks to the fetus and/or potential child.
Moreover, in addition to safety concerns, many other serious ethical concerns have been identified, which require much more widespread and careful public deliberation before this technology may be used.” The commission recommended, in part, the following: Other countries are also considering the issues and determining their policies.
If we’re running out of time, we might say that we wish we had a clone that could help us accomplish all our tasks.
When biologists use the word , they are talking specifically about DNA molecules, cells, or whole plants or animals that have the same genetic makeup.
Scientists clone DNA (“molecular cloning”) so that they have large quantities of identical copies of DNA for scientific experiments.
Cloning of adult animals, known as reproductive cloning, has become relatively widespread since the report of the birth of Dolly the sheep in 1997; Dolly was the first clone of a mammal produced from an adult cell.Different countries are coming to different conclusions about nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells, but they agree with the NBAC advice on reproductive cloning of humans.The COSEPUP–BLS panel focused on the issue of human reproductive cloning.Life scientists conducting research today often clone cells to obtain replicas of the bacterial, animal, or plant cells necessary to perform repeated experiments.They can also develop from a single cell large numbers of identical cells (a “clonal cell line”) that can be used for experiments and to test new medicines.Like reproductive cloning, the process of nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells (also called “therapeutic cloning, nonreproductive cloning, or research cloning”) involves placing the DNA from one mammal into an enucleated egg (an egg from which the chromosomes have been removed). At the blastocyst stage of embryonic development (in humans, a 5-7 day old preimplantation embryo of about 150 cells), its inner cell mass is harvested and grown in culture for subsequent derivation of embryonic stem cells.These cells are then used for scientific and clinical investigations.Chapter 2 provides a basic introduction to cloning and its relation to stem cell research. Chapter 3 is an overview of the state of the science of animal cloning and a summary of its possible application to humans. Chapter 6 contains the panel’s findings and recommendations. “It’s a busy morning in the cloning laboratory of the big-city hospital. In nine months, the parents, who face the very likely prospect of losing the one daughter they have, could find themselves raising two of her–the second created expressively to keep the first alive” (Kluger p. This is just one of the many scenarios people are imagining after the successful cloning–manipulating a cell from an animal so that it grows into an exact duplicate of that animal–of the sheep, Dolly.