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Physical harassment in the workplace takes many forms.Sexual assault is one form of widely known physical harassment."It may entail 'quid pro quo' harassment, which occurs in cases in which employment decisions or treatment are based on submission to or rejection of unwelcome conduct, typically conduct of a sexual nature.
With such frequency of workplace bullying to various groups of people, many theories exist in discussing the causes of workplace bullying.The vastly different harassments imposed on the victims can be categorized into two different types, physical abuse and emotional abuse.Physical abuse refers to sexual assault and violence on body, while emotional abuse refers to imposing stress and bullying.Sexual assault in the workplace has gained media and academic attention majorly in the 90s after a series of famous sex scandals."Among the most notorious are the 1991 congressional hearings on the alleged sexual harassment of Anita Hill by Clarence Thomas, nominee to the Supreme Court; the sexual assault on female officers at a party during the 1991 annual convention of Navy fighter pilots; the dismissal of Air Force pilot Kelly Flinn for adultery in 1997; the 1998 trial and acquittal of the top ranking Army enlisted man on charges of sexual harassment; and the independent counsel investigations of President Clinton's sexual affairs with subordinates." With this cascade of sex scandals, the media and scholars have focused on developing more studies on sexual harassment in workplaces.Sexual assault becomes difficult to define, as the distinction between sexual harassment and consensual sexual behaviors is not finely delineated.The wide-ranging types of workplace harassment can be loosely categorized into emotional and physical abuse.All of these forms of workplace harassment target various groups, including women, racial minorities, homosexuals, people with disabilities and immigrants.Secondly, the issues caused by workplace harassment affect the victims in harmful ways.Discrimination in the workplace hinders victims from successful advancement in their careers, limiting the capabilities of the victim.The Northwestern National Life (1993) study showed 15 percent of respondents experienced physical attack at work, and 14 percent of respondents reported being physically attacked in the past 12 months.According to Keashly, emotional harassment can be defined as "the hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors that are not explicitly tied to sexual or racial content yet are directed at gaining compliance from others." In short, emotional harassment is manipulation of people's actions through social behaviors.